Recognize The Normal Menstrual Cycle and Not, These Are The Signs

menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is a part of female reproduction. During the monthly menstrual cycle, the body will produce hormones to prepare for pregnancy. The menstrual cycle is divided into two, normal menstrual cycle and abnormal menstrual cycle.

Checking the menstrual cycle is an important part of women. The menstrual cycle can also determine a woman’s fertile period. This is especially important for women planning a pregnancy program.

Determine the fertile period through the menstrual cycle by calculating the fertile period calculator. As technology develops, there are now many applications for recording menstrual cycles.

During the menstrual cycle, the pituitary gland in the brain and the ovaries in the female reproductive tract produce and release certain hormones at certain times. Four phases occur in the menstrual cycle, the phases in the menstrual cycle are influenced by the ups and downs of hormones in the body.

Menstrual phase: This phase, which usually lasts from day one to day five, is the time when the uterine lining is completely expelled through the vagina if pregnancy has not yet occurred. Most women bleed for three to five days, but periods lasting only two to seven days are considered normal.

Follicular phase: This phase usually lasts from day six to fourteen. During this time, the level of the hormone estrogen increases which causes the lining of the uterus (endometrium) to grow and thicken. In addition, the follicle-stimulating hormone causes follicles in the ovaries to grow. During days 10 to 14, one of the developing follicles will form a fully mature egg (ovum).

Ovulation: This phase occurs around day 14 of a 28-days menstrual cycle. A sudden increase in the hormone luteinizing hormone causes the ovaries to release their eggs. This event is called ovulation.

Luteal phase: This phase lasts from around day 15 to day 28. After the egg is released from the ovary, it begins to travel through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. Levels of the hormone progesterone increase to help prepare the lining of the uterus for pregnancy. If the egg is fertilized by sperm and attaches to the uterine wall, the woman is pregnant. If pregnancy does not occur, estrogen and progesterone levels drop and the thickened uterine lining is shed during the menstrual period.

Normal Menstrual Cycle

The normal menstrual cycle is generally 28 days with a menstrual period of 7-8 days. Usually, a normal menstrual cycle lasts between 24 to 38 days. The menstrual cycle often changes with age.

In adolescents who experience early puberty will experience a menstrual cycle longer than 38 days, this is a common occurrence. In your 20s, your menstrual cycle will return to normal.

Irregular Normal Menstrual Cycle

In contrast to the normal menstrual cycle, an abnormal or irregular menstrual cycle is characterized by menstrual periods of less than 24 days or more than 38 days. This can be experienced by women who enter the premenopausal phase.

During the premenopausal phase transition, the menstrual cycle will be frequent and irregular. This is characterized by menstrual periods that stop for a month or several months until menstruation comes back.

The period of the menstrual period will also change, it can be faster or longer than usual.

How To Calculate The Menstrual Cycle

Counting menstrual cycles is very important for adult women. This can also determine a woman’s fertile period. The correct way to calculate the menstrual cycle is to note when the first start to the end of the menstrual period.

Normally, the period from the last day of your period to the start of your next period is 24 to 38 days. Mothers can also note a number of symptoms that are felt during menstruation, such as pain, bloating, to pain in the breast. This is to identify the cause of the perceived symptoms.

Signs of an abnormal menstrual cycle

An abnormal menstrual cycle can be characterized by several symptoms. It is important to determine whether the menstrual schedule is regular or not.

  • Missed menstruation;
  • Menstrual periods are longer than usual;
  • Menstrual periods stop suddenly; and
  • Bleeding more than usual.

ALSO READ: Menstrual Pain, The Cause and Hot To Overcome It

Nyeri Haid Siklus Menstruasi

Causes Of Abnormal Menstrual Cycle

If your menstrual cycle is later than usual, there is no need to worry. This is not only a factor of pregnancy but there are several other factors that cause menstrual cycles to become abnormal. Here are some of the reasons.

Stress and Lifestyle

One of the causes of an abnormal menstrual cycle is excessive stress and an unhealthy lifestyle. This is also marked by changes in exercise routines, obesity, to excessive diets.

Contraception

Contraceptive devices can also be the cause of irregular menstrual cycles, one of which is the birth control pill. On average, birth control pills contain a combination of the hormones estrogen and progestin or some contain only progestins.

Some women who take birth control pills experience irregular menstrual periods, one of which is that the menstrual cycle can be missed by up to six months. In the case of women taking birth control pills that only contain progestin, it can even cause bleeding between periods.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an androgen hormone found in women. Hormonal changes can prevent eggs from maturing, making it impossible to consistently ovulate.

Women who suffer from PCOS usually have irregular menstrual cycles. Sometimes menstrual periods stop suddenly. Although the exact cause is unknown, PCOS sufferers are more often due to family ancestry.

THYROID

Thyroid disease is also one of the causes of abnormal menstrual cycles. Thyroid disease is a health problem caused by an imbalance in thyroid hormone production. The thyroid gland generally plays an important role in metabolism in the body.

Just like PCOS, thyroid disease is also caused by heredity. Another cause is taking drugs that contain high iodine. Thyroid disease is more common in women.

Tips For Normal Menstrual Cycle

Irregular cycles can sometimes be uncomfortable. Even so, Mother need not worry. There are some natural tips to get your menstrual cycle back to normal. This method is easy to do at home and without treatment.

Getting Enough Sleep

Having enough hours of sleep can make the cycle normal again. Normal sleep hours for adults are 7-9 hours per day. The quality of sleep greatly affects the condition of hormones in the body.

Avoid Excessive Stress

Avoid excessive stress, because stress can make menstrual cycles irregular. Yoga or meditation can be the best options for managing stressful thoughts.

Change Contraceptive Equipment

Many women experience irregular menstrual cycles due to contraceptives such as birth control pills. This can be overcome by changing contraceptives. If you are confused about choosing contraception, consult a doctor first.

Healthy Lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle with exercise and eating foods rich in nutrients and vitamins can help the menstrual cycle to return to normal. A healthy lifestyle is also complemented by exercise.

Keep Your Ideal Weight

Obesity is one of the causes of abnormal menstrual cycles. The fix is to keep your body weight ideal. Make sure to always eat healthy foods and don’t overdo it.

  1. my.clevelandclinic.org. Abnormal Menstruation Periods. 
  2. www.nhs.uk. Irregular Periods
  3. my.clevelandclinic.org. Normal Menstruation
  4. Gloria Bachmann, Nora J. Doty, in Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine (Second Edition), 2010 source
  5. www.womenshealth.gov. Period Problems
  6. J Physiol Anthropol. 2009;28(3):129-36. doi: 10.2114/jpa2.28.129. source
  7. KEITH P. MADSEN, MD, Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, New Jersey. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Jan 1;85(1):35-43. Source
  8. www.womenshealth.gov. Your Menstrual Cycle
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